01. Introduction
02. Gram-Positive Cocci
03. Gram-Positive Bacilli
04. Gram-Positive Branched Filaments
05. Gram-Negative Diplococci
06. Gram-Negative Bacilli
07. Gram-Negative Coccobacilli
08. Additional Bacteria
09. RNA Viruses
10. DNA Viruses
11. Fungi
12. Opportunistic Fungi
13. Protozoa (single-celled eukaryotes - small parasites)
14. Helminths (parasitic worms - large macroparasites)
15. Prions

2.02 Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Staph epidermidis and saprophyticus – Audio and Lecture Notes – Click to Expand

Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are coagulase-negative, catalase-positive, urease positive, gram-positive cocci. Similarly to other staphylococci, they arrange themselves in grape-like clusters.

Staph epidermidis is novobiocin sensitive whilst Staph saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant. 

 

Focusing on Staph epidermidis, its natural flora is the human skin; therefore this makes it difficult to obtain uncontaminated blood cultures. 

Staph epidermidis has a preference for infecting medical devices that have prolonged contact with the body, namely urinary catheters, intravenous lines, prosthetic heart valves and surgical shunts, and prosthetic joints. 

Staph epidermidis also produces a polysaccharide slime layer that forms a biofilm, that facilitates adherence to the indwelling medical devices and protects the bacteria from immune clearance i.e. Staph epidermidis’ slime layer lets it latch onto the medical apparatus.

Diseases caused by staph epidermidis include:

    • Endocarditis in prospective heart valve patients, as well as infections of the other indwelling medical devices. 

An increased multi-drug resistance, including resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins, has been observed with staph epidermidis.

Currently, treatment involves the removal of the offending medical device and administration of vancomycin. 

Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are coagulase-negative, catalase-positive, urease positive, gram-positive cocci. Similarly to other staphylococci, they arrange themselves in grape-like clusters.

Staph epidermidis is novobiocin sensitive whilst Staph saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant. 

 

Focusing on Staph saprophyticus; it is normal flora in the urinary tract.

Entering the urinary tract through sexual activity, Staph saprophyticus can result in:

    • Urinary tract infections aka bacteriuria from kidney to bladder. This may be asymptomatic or may be accompanied by symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, and/or pain during urination.
    • It can also cause cystitis aka inflammation of the bladder. Note that Staph saprophyticus and E. coli are some of the most common causes of cystitis in sexually active women.

Treatment of Staph saprophyticus is with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole aka co-trimoxazole (TMP-SMX).

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